What is Internet of Things?
The Internet of things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
Internet of Things is a very widely defined concept of creating a network of devices or objects that are synchronized and able to communicate without human interaction. To simplify it even more, the Internet of Things is pretty much all about adding an internet connection to a device that hasn’t been equipped with it before. It creates a way for devices to exchange data and complete tasks as a self-calibrate model when certain criterias are met.
What is IoT technology and its architecture?
Explaining IoT in simple terms would be called “Networking”, i.e, accessing your “Things” remotely through the internet. Connecting your electronic devices to the internet.
Nowadays IoT products are becoming very common in households or at least you’ve heard or seen an advertisement about them like google home, Alexa, or Syska Smart LED are some of the common examples of IoT that are used in our day to day life.
IoT has its benefits, Iot helps us taking a step in the future of automation with the help of IoT things become reliable and effortless, We can do lots of things without putting much physical efforts.
IoT system architecture, in its simplistic view, consists of three tiers:
- Edge gateway
Devices – Devices include networked things, such as the sensors and actuators found in IIoT equipment, particularly those that use protocols such as Modbus, Bluetooth, Zigbee, or proprietary protocols, to connect to an Edge Gateway.
Edge gateway – The Edge Gateway consists of sensor data aggregation systems called Edge Gateways that provide functionality, such as pre-processing of the data, securing connectivity to cloud, using systems such as WebSockets, the event hub and even in some cases, edge analytics and fog computing.
Cloud – Applications built for IIoT using the microservices architecture, which is usually polyglot and inherently secure in nature using HTTPS/OAuth. It includes various database systems that store sensor data, such as time series databases or asset stores using backend data storage systems. The cloud tier in most cloud-based IoT system features event queuing and messaging system that handles communication that transpires in all tiers.
(Basically cloud tier act as a messenger, it transfer the data in between the tiers.)
Example of Internet of Things.
To understand what is Internet of Things(IoT)? Let us consider a simple real life example of an IoT based system. Suppose there is a water tank in a locality. The tank has to be filled twice in a day once in the morning at 5 AM, and once in evening at 4 PM. To pump water to the tank there is an electric motor that has to run for three hours to fill the tank. Let’s say John has the responsibility to operate the motor. To do this, he has to come from his house which is five kilometres away from the site. He has to visit there twice, to switch on it and shutdown it after three hours.
Now to make the system automatic, a system which can be operated with less human intervention, a micro-controller/microprocessor can be embedded in the electric motor, in order to monitor the system from far away, the system can be made internet connected. Now John can operate and observe the status of the system from his home as well. Also sending a text message(SMS) or a Whatsapp message when water is filled will further enhance the operation of the system. Now this system will become an IoT system. Thus IoT is network/internet of different devices like electric motor, home appliances, industrial appliances, etc. containing sensor related software and hardware, these devices are network/internet connected and capable to transfer and receive data with each other and capable to process and store data.
Applications of Internet of Things
- Smart Parking.
Monitoring of parking spaces available in the city.
- Structural health.
Monitoring of vibrations and material conditions in buildings, bridges, and historical monuments.
- Noise Urban Maps.
Sound monitoring in bar areas and centric zones in real-time.
- Smartphone Detection.
Detection of iPhones and Android devices and in general, any device which works with WiFi or Bluetooth interfaces.
- Electromagnetic Field Levels.
Measurement of the energy radiated by cell stations and WiFi routers.
- Traffic Congestion.
Monitoring of vehicles and pedestrian levels to optimize driving and walking routes.
- Smart Lighting.
Intelligent and weather adaptive lighting in street lights.
- Waste Management.
Detection of trash/garbage levels in containers to optimize the trash collection routes.
- Smart Roads.
Intelligent Highways with warning messages and diversions according to climate conditions and unexpected events like accidents or traffic jams.
- Forest Fire Detection.
Monitoring of combustion gases and preemptive fire conditions to define alert zones.
- Air Pollution.
Control of CO2 emissions of factories, pollution emitted by cars, and toxic gases generated in farms.
- Snow Level Monitoring.
Snow level measurement to know in real-time the quality of ski tracks and allow security personnel avalanche prevention.
- Landslide Prevention.
Monitoring of soil moisture, vibrations, and density to detect dangerous patterns of inland conditions.
- Earthquake Early Detection.
Distributed control in specific places of tremors.
- Potable water monitoring.
Monitor the quality of tap water in cities.
- Chemical leakage detection in rivers.
Detect leakages and wastes of factories in rivers.
- Swimming pool remote measurement.
Control remotely the swimming pool conditions.
- Automation of houses. Houses can be fully automated by using IoT devices which may prove beneficial for children and old people.
What Technologies Have Made IoT Possible?
While the idea of IoT has been in existence for a long time, a collection of recent advancements in a number of different technologies has made it practical.
- Access to low-cost, low-power sensor technology : Affordable and reliable sensors are making IoT technology possible for more manufacturers.
- Connectivity : A host of network protocols for the internet has made it easy to connect sensors to the cloud and to other “things” for efficient data transfer.
- Cloud computing platforms : The increase in the availability of cloud platforms enables both businesses and consumers to access the infrastructure they need to scale up without actually having to manage it all.
- Machine learning and analytics : With advances in machine learning and analytics, along with access to varied and vast amounts of data stored in the cloud, businesses can gather insights faster and more easily. The emergence of these allied technologies continues to push the boundaries of IoT and the data produced by IoT also feeds these technologies.
- Conversational Artificial Intelligence (AI) : Advances in neural networks have brought natural-language processing (NLP) to IoT devices (such as digital personal assistants Alexa, Cortana, and Siri) and made them appealing, affordable, and viable for home use.
The Importance of IoT :
1. IoT promotes efficient resource utilization.
2. It minimizes human efforts in many life aspects.
3. Enabling IoT will reduce the cost of production and maximizing the returns.
4. It makes analytics decisions faster and accurate.
5. It boosts the real-time marketing of products.
6. Provides a better client experience.
7. It guarantees high-quality data and secured processing.
Disadvantages of IoT.
- Privacy and security.
- Loss of jobs .
Internet of Things is lauded as the next big revolution in the field of technology. A world where every device smartly communicates with each other and also the user, seems nothing short of a script of a science fiction movie !
In the title we mention thing from the future because it was just a imagination decades ago. even though it is now familiar to all of us. still very few of us know the working behind it. and still we amaze how machine take commands from us via voice and and perform tasks.
The Internet of things may be the future as it makes lots of things easier, and things consume less time but it makes humans more dependable and somewhere it becomes a great privacy and security issue. The number in cyberattacks can be increased.
in developing countries where still employment is a huge problem. IoT can be a con for people. Whereas on the other hand it can be beneficial for old people who live alone at house or kids whose parents are both employees.